Everything You Need to Know: TV Technology and Terminologies

Basic TV, Digital TV, 2K Smart TV, 2K Android TV, 4K Smart TV, 4K Android TV, OLED TV & HDR TV, sounds great but more confusing, right? Therefore, before we proceed we will try to define each TV category in the most simplest term and easy to understand.

What is a Basic TV?

  • It is a type of TV commonly use for watching TV broadcast program.
  • It can play sounds, music videos and movies via use of USB.
  • Commonly, the resolution for this type is HD ready to FHD.
  • For the size, it ranges from 24-43”.
  • Interfaces includes USB, VGA, HDMI, MHL, earphone, RF, RGB, composite and audio jacks.

What is a Smart TV?

  • Has the functions of a Basic TV.
  • Has the capability to surf in the internet.
  • Interfaces includes USB ( USB 2.0 and USB 3.0), MHL Cable, VGA, HDMI, earphone, SPDIF, channel connector, RGB, composite audio jacks and additional LAN IN connection.
  • For the size, Smart TVs started from 32” and above.
  • Resolution started from HD to UHD.
  • Uses wireless connection called the Wi-Fi.

What is an Android TV?

  • Has the functions and features of a SMART TV.
  • Aside from using a software, android TV uses Android OS for its system.
  • It has a built-in memory that allows the user to install applications that can be used even on offline mode.
  • Android TVs are not virus prone as opposed to the popular belief. Android TVs can only read APK applications.

What is a Digital Signal Processor TV?

  • It can be Basic, Smart or Android TV.
  • It has 3 types: DVB, ATSC and ISDB-T.
  • ISDB-T is what the Philippines using.
  • The highest resolution that it can support is FHD.
  • The medium of receiving the signal is “T” which stands for “terrestrial” using an antenna .
  • It has an additional feature called the PVR (Personal Video Recoding) and EWBS (Emergency Warning Broadcast System).

What is a PVR or Personal Video Recording?

A good feature of the ISDB-T Digital TV that allows the user to record the program with the help of a USB or HDD. can only be used if the available signal in the area is digital. Recording can be done whether the TV is on or off(standby mode) however the time should be set before turning off the TV.

What is an Emergency Warning Broadcast System?

A system wherein the government has an access to a certain area to give an advisory like calamities including typhoon, earthquake, tsunami and the like. As of the moment, the standard of EWBS here in the Philippines is still not yet finalized. So the strict implementation here in the country can be expected in the near future.

What are he Digital TV Standards

Different digital TV standards in the world:

Europe:
DVB
According to the transmission medium:
DVB-S (Satellite)
DVB-C (Cable)
DVB-T (Terrestrial)

America:
Broadcasting-Terrestrial Standard: ATSC
Satellite/cable adopts European standard: DVB-S/DVB-C

Japan:
Broadcasting-Terrestrial Standard: ISDB-T
Satellite/cable adopts European standard: DVB-S/DVB-C

What is a Digital TV Standards here in the Philippines?
Philippines to adopt the Japanese Technology digital signal known as ISDB-T or the “Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting-Terrestrial”.

What is an Analog Signal Processor TV?

  • It can be Basic, Smart or Android TV.
  • It has 3 types: PAL, SECAM and NTSC.
  • NTSC is what the Philippines using.
  • The highest resolution that it can support is SD.
  • The medium of receiving the signal is “T” which stands for “terrestrial” using an antenna .

Analog TV Signal Formats

  • Different countries(areas) use different analog TV signal systems.
  • PAL(PAL D/K, PAL I, PAL B/G)625/50i
  • China, Vietnam: PAL D/K
  • Britain, HK: PAL I
  • Germany, Australia, Southeast Asia countries: PAL B/G
  • America, Japan, Canada, Taiwan, Philipines, etc.: NTSC 525/60i
  • France, Russia, Eastern Europe: SECAM 625/50i

Common TV Technical Terminologies

In this section we will try to find out and try to define some sales person technical words.

Pixel:
The smallest element or the basic unit that builds up an image in the screen. It is derived from the two words “Picture” and “Element”. It can sometimes refer as “dots” or “pel”. It is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen. Therefore, the more the pixel the clearer the picture is.

Resolution:
Refers to the total number of pixels in an image. It is expressed in two set of numbers which are the width and height. See figure below;

Hertz:
A unit of measurement (Hz) to describe frequency. One Hertz equals one cycle per second. In video, Hertz is used to describe a frame rate in frames per second.

Frequency:
Refers to the speed of transition of one frame to another. Its unit of measurement is express in Hertz (Hz). This is also known as the frame rate.

Response Time
-(unit: millisecond or ms) refers to the time that a generic system or functional unit takes to react to a given input.
E.g. Switching from one local channel to another.

Illustration of TV quick response time and TV Slow response time.

Viewing Angle:
Refers to the maximum angle at which a display can be viewed with acceptable visual performance. The higher the viewing angle means the clarity can be viewed even watching on the side of the TV. It can be measured horizontally or vertically.

An illustration of TV wide viewing angle and narrow viewing angle.

Viewing Distance:
The suggested distance of a viewer from the TV to appreciate the clarity of the graphics being played in the screen. Viewing at a nearer distance might result to noticing the pixels.

Suggested viewing distance to appreciate TV clarity.

Aspect Ratio:
Aspect Ratio of a Display is the proportional relationship between the width of a display and its height. The aspect ratio is expressed as two numbers separated by a colon (x:y). Current common aspect ratios for displays are 5:4, 4:3, 16:10 and 16:9.

Common aspect ratios for TV Displays

Types of TV According to Display Technology

CRT TV:
A term which stands for Cathode Ray Tube. A type of TV that uses a vacuum tube and a fluorescent lamp to produce images. This is already an obsolete or outdated type of TV.

CRT TV

PDP TV:
A term which stands for Plasma Display Panel. It uses ionized gasses between two panels of glass to produce images. This is already an obsolete or outdated type of TV.

Actual Plasma TV

LCD TV:
A term which stands for Liquid Crystal Display. It filters the light coming from its backlight to produce an image. The filter is called the “shutter-filter” and this produces “sub-pixel”. This “sub-pixels” blend together to produce pixel. The shade of color is controlled by changing the relative intensity of the light passing through the sub-pixels. It was initially commercially released by the year 2007.

lcd tv actual looks

First Generation LCD TVs have backlight called CCFL ( Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp. ) Advantages of LCD TVs over CRTs and PDPs are Lower Power Consumption, Slimmer and Lighter.

LED TV:
A term which stands for Light Emitting Diode. It is the 2nd generation LCD TVs but marketed as “LED TV” due to its LED backlight. It also uses LCD panel and same technology to produce images.

Advantages of LED TVs from LCD TVs:
1st Slimmer Design – This is due to its backlight.
2nd Lower Power Consumption – This is due to its backlight.
3rd Better Picture Quality- Dimming can be controlled thus giving an advantage in watching dark scenes. Brightness can also be controlled since LED backlight are easier to control.
4th Longer Lifespan of Backlight – LED lights have a lifespan of 100,000-120,000 hours compare to the 50,000-60,000 hours for CCFL.

OLED TV:
A term which stands for Organic Light Emitting Diode. Unlike a typical LED TV, OLED does not need a backlight. It uses a thin film which is made up organic material which is the carbon. This organic film has the capability to produce light when an electricity is supplied.





Types of TV According to Display Resolution

SD TV (Standard Definition)

SD TV resolution is 640 × 480 pixels (width x height) and aspect ratio of 4:3. This resolution is applicable for TVs with the size of 14 inches to 24 inches. It is commonly installed with the late CRT TV’s called as 480p TVs. At the moment Standard Definition is become an obsolete resolution.

HD TV (High Definition)
HD TV’s is more clearer than SD, it’s resolution is 1280 × 720 pixels (width x height) and aspect ratio of 16:9. High Definition can only be appreciated for TVs with the size of 24 inches to 40 inches. HD TV’s is also known as 720p TVs. However, it has two variations that makes confusions, the HD and the HD ready. The difference lies on the processing of signal through the use of antenna.

FHD TV’s (Full High Definition)
FHD TV’s resolution is 1920 × 1080 pixels (width x height) and aspect ratio of 16:9. Full High Definition can only be appreciated for TVs with the size of 40 inches to 50 inches. FHD TV’s is also called as 1080p TVs. Somehow it’s more clearer than SD and HD TV’s at some point. Because, if you play a low quality video on this kind of screen, I assure you, you really don’t like the result, it’s blurry or pixelated.

UHD TV (Ultra High Definition)
UHD TV’s resolution is 3840 × 2160 pixels (width x height) and aspect ratio of up to 16:9. Its camera sensor equivalent resolution is 8.3 MP and 4 times the resolution of FHD. Ultra High Definition is best appreciated for TVs that comes with the size of 55 inches and above. UHD TV’s is also known as 4k TV’s.

8K UHD TV’s (8K Ultra High Definition)
As of the writing 8K UHD TV’s is currently the higher version of Ultra High Definition. It’s resolution comes with 7680 x 4320 (width x height) and aspect ratio of up to 16:9. Its camera sensor equivalent resolution is 33.2 MP and 4X the resolution of UHD and 16X of FHD. 8K Ultra High Definition is best appreciated for TVs with the size of 85” and above. 8K UHD TV is commonly known as 8K TVs.

Types of TV According to Backlight Arrangement

DLED TV (Direct)

  • It can be a Basic, a Smart or an Android TV.
  • Physically, it’s thicker than an ELED TV. Thickness is due to the presence of backlight.
  • Power consumption is generally HIGHER than 20-30% .
  • Have an enhanced performance on the dark scenes due to the better control of the backlight.
  • Graphics are more brighter due to its better control of the backlight.

ELED TV (Edge)

  • It can be a Basic, a Smart or an Android TV.
  • Physically, it’s thinner than a DLED TV. Lights are placed on the edge of the frame.
  • Power consumption is generally LOWER than 20-30%.
  • Ideal for wall mounting .
  • ELED TV can still produce good quality of light due to the help of its “diffuser” that scatters the light evenly all over the screen.

Types of TV Panel General Classification

VA Panel (Vertical Alignment)

  • Vertical Alignment Panel is commonly known as the soft panel.
  • An obvious watermarks can be seen when you touch, lightly press or tap the panel.
  • VA Panel usually comes offer a wide viewing angle of up to 170 degrees.
  • VA is usually the best choice when it comes with colored images.
  • VA Panel is commonly seen on the following LED TV sizes; 14 inches, 19 inches, 24 inches, and 40 inches LED TV.

IPS Panel (In Plane Switching)

  • In Plane Switching panel is commonly known as the hard panel.
  • No to slight watermarks can be seen when you touch, lightly press or tap the panel.
  • IPS comes with more wider viewing angle of up to 178 degrees than VA Panel.
  • IPS is usually the best choice when it comes with on dark images.
  • It usually intalled on the following LED TV sizes; 32 inches, 43 inches, 50 inches, 55 inches and higher.

TV Terminal and Port

USB Port
USB port (either USB 2.0 or USB 3.0) is where in you can plug your USB drive to watch movies and videos, play music, view photos as well as read documents.

What is the difference between USB 2.0 and USB 3.0?

  • USB 2.0 comes in color either white, black or gray. While USB 3.0 is blue.
  • USB 2.0 comes in 4 pins. While USB 3.0 has 9 pins. The is the reason why USB 3.0 is much faster than 2.0.
  • USB 2.0 transfer speed is 480 megabit per second. While USB 3.0 transfer speed is 4,800 megabit per second.

HDMI (High Definition Multi-media Interface)

  • Connect HDMI Input signal from signal source such as DVD.
  • It is the first and only industry-supported, uncompressed, all-digital audio/video interface.
  • By delivering crystal-clear, all-digital audio and video via a single cable, HDMI dramatically simplifies cabling and helps provide consumers with the highest-quality home theater experience.

Composite Video

  • Is an analog video transmission (no audio) that carries standard definition video typically at 480i or 576i resolution.

Component Video (a.k.a YPbPr or RGB)

  • By splitting the signal into three separate cables by delivering color and luminance through their own individual channels.
  • A component cable delivers a great picture with a minimum of interference.

S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interface Format)

  • Is a type of digital audio interconnect cable used in consumer audio equipment to output audio over reasonably short distances. The signal is transmitted over either a coaxial cable with RCA connectors or a fibre optic cable with TOSLINK connectors.

Earphone Jack

  • Earphone or 3.5 mm jack, it is also termed a Phone Connector (Audio), audio jack, phone jack, phone plug, and jack plug. Specific models are termed stereo plug, mini-stereo, mini jack, headphone jack, microphone jack, tiny telephone connector, bantam plug.
  • It is cylindrical in shape, typically with two, three or four contacts. Three-contact versions are known as TRS connectors, where T stands for “tip”, R stands for “ring” and S stands for “sleeve”.

RF IN (Radio Frequency)
Connect a coaxial cable to receive signal from the antenna or cable. The global TV system in Philippines is NTSC.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *